In cryptography, a **Caesar cipher**, also known as **Caesar’s cipher**, the **shift cipher**, **Caesar’s code** or **Caesar shift**, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. It is a type of substitution cipher in which each letter in the plaintext is replaced by a letter some fixed number of positions down the alphabet. For example, with a left shift of 3, $D$ would be replaced by $A$, $E$ would become $B$, and so on. The method is named after Julius Caesar, who used it in his private correspondence.

The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets; the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions. For instance, here is a Caesar cipher using a left rotation of three places, equivalent to a right shift of 23 (the shift parameter is used as the key):

```
Plain: ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
Cipher: XYZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVW
```

When encrypting, a person looks up each letter of the message in the “plain” line and writes down the corresponding letter in the “cipher” line.

```
Plaintext: THE QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPS OVER THE LAZY DOG
Ciphertext: QEB NRFZH YOLTK CLU GRJMP LSBO QEB IXWV ALD
```

Complexity:

- Time: $O(|n|)$
- Space: $O(|n|)$